The UN system’s work in Africa has been a long-standing item on the HLCP and CEB agendas, reflecting the priority that all parts of the system assign to supporting African development. The efforts of the Committee and the Board have been aimed at promoting collaborative actions to bring about greater coherence in the work of the UN system in Africa. CEB has strongly reiterated that a substantial increase in ODA is crucial for renewed progress in Africa and that increased ODA flows are an essential requirement for effectively tackling the capacity and other basic constraints affecting the region. The UN system’s advocacy for substantially increased resource flows for African development has been accompanied by a major concerted effort to help build and strengthen national and regional institutions and managerial and technical capacities in the continent. The UN system’s commitment to supporting African development efforts is based on the principle of an Africa-owned and Africa-led process. The New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), which was launched in 2001 and which fully embraces the Millennium Declaration, has become the guiding framework for coordinated efforts by UN organizations to help address the continent’s special needs. The UN system views its support for NEPAD as an integral part of its contribution to implementing the Millennium Declaration. The UN system’s commitment to NEPAD is shown in the readiness of CEB member organizations to align their priorities with those of NEPAD and to refocus existing inter-agency mechanisms on guiding the system’s response. CEB’s main objective in this regard has been to provide policy guidance to ensure that the UN system support for NEPAD remains responsive and current to the needs of Africa. CEB’s support of NEPAD extends from advocacy efforts, funding and normative work, to the provision of technical assistance. It is primarily directed at NEPAD’s seven thematic clusters (infrastructure development; governance, peace and security; agriculture, trade and market access; environment, population and urbanization; human resources development, employment and HIV/AIDS; science and technology; and communication, advocacy and outreach). Recent challenges that have impacted UN system efforts in support of African development include: (a) volatility in food prices that has underscored the need to raise agricultural productivity and find additional resources to fight malnutrition and hunger; (b) the slowing world economy that strains donor efforts to mobilize development finance; and (c) the need for more rapid progress in the Doha Development Round of trade negotiations to improve market access for developing countries. CEB members, in this connection, have welcomed the Secretary-General’s initiative in launching the Millennium Development Goal Africa Steering Group and the Millennium Development Goal Africa Working Group and pledged their support for the process. These two groups were launched to galvanize support for the implementation of the MDGs and other internationally agreed goals in Africa. They bring together senior leadership of key international financial institutions, the United Nations system and multilateral and regional organizations. Seven thematic groups have been established to carry the work forward as follows: (a) agriculture and food security; (b) education; (c) health; (d) infrastructure and trade facilitation; (e) national statistical systems; (f) aid predictability; and (g) improved country-level collaboration. CEB members have a critical role to play in this initiative and in the thematic groups relevant to their work.