Climate Change threatens the fundamental determinants of health:
Air: Over 70 000 excess deaths were recorded in the extreme heat of summer 2003 in Europe. By the second half of this century, such temperatures will be the norm in the region.
Water: Climate change, combined with population and economic growth, is likely to increase the number of people living in water‐stressed water basins from about 1.5 billion in 1990 to 3–6 billion by 2050, and bring a 10–30‐fold increase in the land area in extreme drought.
Food: In some African countries, yields from rain‐fed agriculture are expected to be reduced by up to 50% by 2020, increasing the 3.5 million deaths each year attributable to under nutrition.
Shelter: Unless protection is improved, by 2080 sea level rise is expected to lead to a 10‐fold increase in the number of people exposed to coastal flooding, to more than 100 million people a year, and increase the frequency of inland floods several times.
Freedom from disease: Climate change is projected to increase the population at risk of malaria in Africa by 170 million by 2030, and the global population at risk of dengue by 2 billion by the 2080s.