Climate change is now recognized as one of the defining challenges of the 21st century, and protecting health from its impacts is an emerging priority for the public health community. Further, the potential range and magnitude of associated health risks should be central to the rationale for actions to mitigate the occurrence of climate change. Research in this field is increasing, but it is still comparatively weak in relation to the complexity of the issue and the magnitude of the health risks that may arise from inadequate or inappropriate responses.