The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.
Funds and Programmes
The Funds and Programmes were created by the United Nations to meet needs not envisaged at San Francisco, such as Palestine refugees, development assistance, food aid, or the environment. They are subordinate to the United Nations, but since they are immediately controlled by distinct inter-governmental bodies and derive most of their financial resources from other sources than the United Nations budgets, they are somewhat more akin to specialized agencies than to "subsidiary organs" such as UN commissions and committees. Moreover, as their activities are more operational and carried out at field level, they have needs dictated by an environment quite different from that of headquarter-centered administrations. The Programmes and Funds apply UN rules and regulations in the realm of administration and personnel. UNRWA reports only to the General Assembly.
Specialized agencies are legally independent international organizations with their own rules, membership, organs and financial resources, were brought into relationship with the United Nations through negotiated agreements. Some of the agencies existed before the First World War, some were associated with the League of Nations, others were created almost simultaneously with the United Nations and yet others were created by the United Nations itself to meet emerging needs. Specialized agencies work with the UN and each other through the coordinating machinery of ECOSOC at the intergovernmental level, and through the Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) at the inter-secretariat level.
Regional Commissions are the regional outposts of the United Nations and represent an integral part of the regional institutional landscape. Stationed in five regions of the world, they share the key objectives of aiming to foster economic integration at the sub-regional and regional levels, promoting the regional implementation of internationally agreed development goals, including the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), and to support regional sustainable development by contributing to bridging economic, social and environmental gaps among their member countries and sub-regions.
United Nations Research and Training Institutes
The various research and training institutes were established by the General Assembly to perform independent research and training. One former institute, the International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women (INSTRAW), was merged with other elements of the United Nations system into a new organization, UN Women, in January 2011. UNIDIR reports only to the General Assembly.
Jointly Financed Bodies
Jointly Financed Bodies are administrative organizational units of the United Nations common system financed on an inter-agency basis. In addition to the Chief Executives Board for Coordination itself, these include the following:
The term Related Organization has to be understood as a default expression, describing organizations whose cooperation agreement with the United Nations has many points in common with that of Specialized Agencies, but does not refer to Article 57 and 63 of the United Nations Charter, relevant to Specialized Agencies. Nonetheless, these organizations are part and parcel of the work of CEB.
IAEA reports to the Security Council and the General Assembly. WTO has no reporting obligation to the General Assembly (GA) but contributes on an ad-hoc basis to GA and ECOSOC work inter alia on finance and developmental issues.IAEA reports to the Security Council and the General Assembly. WTO has no reporting obligation to the General Assembly (GA) but contributes on an ad-hoc basis to GA and ECOSOC work inter alia on finance and developmental issues.
Chief Executives Board for Coordination
The United Nations System Chief Executives Board for Coordination (CEB) is the main instrument for supporting and reinforcing the coordinating role of the United Nations intergovernmental bodies on social, economic and related matters. On behalf of 29 member organizations, the CEB carries out its role through three high-level committees.
United Nations Development Group
The UNDG is the third pillar of the CEB responsible for coordinating operational activities at the country level. The UNDG complements the work of the High Level Committee on Programmes on policy and programme topics and the High Level Committee on Management on management and administrative issues.
High-level Committee on Programmes
High-level Committee on Management
The HLCM identifies and analyzes administrative management reforms with the aim of improving efficiency and simplifying business practices. Its work is carried out in the main through task-forces of experts in given administrative areas, whose work is guided by HLCM.
Inter-agency Coordination Mechanisms
The Chief Executives Board and its subsidiary mechanisms take into account the many coordination and inter-agency networks already in existence. These groups do not fall under the hierarchical structure but may be classified by their sphere of activity.