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UN Women was established in July 2010 by the General Assembly (res. 64/289) to improve the coordination and coherence of gender equality and empowerment of women, and promote more effective gender mainstreaming across the UN system. It consolidated the work of four UN gender entities: the UN Development Fund for Women (UNIFEM), the Division for the Advancement of Women, the Office of the Special Adviser on Gender Issues, and the UN International Research and Training Institute for the Advancement of Women.

The United Nations is an international organization founded in 1945 after the Second World War by 51 countries committed to maintaining international peace and security, developing friendly relations among nations and promoting social progress, better living standards and human rights.

The UN International Children's Emergency Fund (UNICEF) was established by the General Assembly (GA res. 57 (I) (1946) to provide emergency assistance to children in war-ravaged countries following World War II. By GA res. 417 (V) (1950), the UN General Assembly charged it with addressing the needs of children in developing countries. GA res. 802 (VIII) (1953) extended UNICEF'S mandate indefinitely, with an emphasis on programmes giving long-term benefits to children everywhere, particularly those in developing countries, and changed the organization's name to the United Nations Children's Fund but retained the UNICEF acronym.

UNCTAD promotes the integration of developing countries into the world economy. Its work aims to help shape policy debates and thinking on development, with a particular focus on ensuring that domestic policies and international action are mutually supportive in bringing about sustainable development.

The UN Development Programme (UNDP) is the United Nations lead agency for the UN development system. Its objective is to build inclusive, sustainable and resilient societies. It has a presence in 176 countries and territories, and provides expert advice, training and financial support. Special attention is paid to the needs of the Least Developed Countries (LDCs) and countries emerging from conflict.

The Economic and Social Commission for Asia and the Pacific (ESCAP) serves as the regional arm of the UN in economic, social and related fields. Its work includes norm-setting, dissemination of information, analytical and operational functions, as well as providing an important forum for articulating regional perspectives on global issues and for building consensus within the Asia-Pacific region (GA res. 321197 (1977) and ECOSOC res. 1998/46 (1998).

The Economic and Social Commission for Western Asia (ESCWA) helps to shape and implement global policy frameworks, notably the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development and the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), hand in hand with its 18 member States.

The Economic Commission for Africa (ECA) was established in 1958 by ECOSOC res. 671A (XXV) (1958), and is one of five regional commissions under the administrative direction of UN Headquarters. As the regional arm of the UN in Africa, it is mandated to support the economic and social development of its 53 Member States, foster regional integration and promote international cooperation for Africa's development.

The Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) was created in 1947 by ECOSOC res. 36 (IV) (1947). Its major aim is to promote pan-European economic integration. To do so, UNECE brings together 56 countries from Europe, Central Asia and North America to work together on economic and sectoral issues.

The Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) was founded in 1948 by ECOSOC res. 106 (VI) to coordinate policies for the promotion of sustainable Latin American economic development and to foster regional and international trade. Later, its work was extended to the Caribbean countries and its programme of action expanded to promote sustainable social development.

The UN Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) was established in 1945 to promote the aims set out in article 1, para. 3 of the UN Charter. Its purpose, as stated in article 1 of its Constitution, is to contribute to peace and security by promoting collaboration among nations through education, science and culture.

The UN Environment Programme (UNEP) was established by GA res. 2997 (XXVII) (1972) following the Stockholm Conference on the Human Environment. It aims to provide leadership and encourage partnerships in caring for the environment by inspiring, informing and enabling nations and people to improve their quality of life, without compromising that of future generations.

In 1992, countries joined an international treaty, the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, to cooperatively consider what they could do to limit average global temperature increases and the resulting climate change, and to cope with whatever impacts were, by then, inevitable.

GA res. 32/162 (1977) established the Governing Council of the UN Human Settlements Programme and its Secretariat, the UN Human Settlements Programme (UN-HABITAT) (previously known as the UN Centre for Human Settlements). UN-HABITAT, which has its headquarters in Nairobi, Kenya, is charged with coordinating human settlement activities within the UN system and facilitating the global exchange of information on shelter and sustainable urban development.

The UN Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO) is the UN specialized agency mandated to promote industrial development and international industrial cooperation. The Organization's mission statement is: Partner for prosperity: UNIDO aspires to reduce poverty through sustainable industrial development. we want every country to have the opportunity to grow a flourishing productive sector, to increase their participation in international trade and to safeguard their environment.

The UN Institute for Disarmament Research( UNIDIR) is an autonomous body of the UN, established by the General Assembly to carry out independent research on disarmament and related international security issues.

The UN Institute for training and Research (UNITAR) was established "for the purpose of enhancing the effectiveness of the United Nations in achieving the major objectives of the Organization'' through extensive training and research (UNITAR Statute). Operating as an autonomous body within UN system, the Institute provides short-term executive training to Members States' national and local government officials, and representatives of civil society and the private sector.

UNISDR was created in December 1999 in response to a need for mainstreaming disaster risk reduction within the UN's. development and other work areas. It serves as the UN system focal point for coordination of disaster reduction, and ensures synergies among UN system and regional organisations in disaster reduction activities, and socio-economic and humanitarian activity fields (GA res, 56/195 (2001)).

The UN Inter-regional Crime and Justice Research Institute (UNICRI) is one of five UN research and training institutes. It was created to help inter-governmental, governmental and non-governmental organizations in formulating and implementing improved policies in crime prevention and criminal justice. It does this through applied research, training, technical cooperation, field activities and the collection, exchange and dissemination of information.

The UN Office for Project Services' (UNOPS') mission is to expand the capacity of the UN system and its partners to implement peace building, humanitarian and development operations that matter for people in need. Working in some of the world's most challenging environments, UNOPS' core services include project management, procurement, human resources management, fund management and UN common services.

The UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) is the secretariat of the Conference of the Parties to the UN Convention against Transnational Organized Crime and its three supplementary protocols on: Trafficking in Persons, especially Women and Children; Smuggling of Migrants; and illicit Manufacturing of and Trafficking in Firearms. It is also the secretariat of the Conference of the States Parties to the UN Convention against Corruption. UNODC promotes the ratification and implementation of all of these conventions and protocols through capacity building, training and technical assistance.

The UN Population Fund (UNFPA) is a United Nations development agency that promotes the right of every woman, man and child to enjoy a life of health and equal opportunity. UNFPA supports countries in using population data for policies and programmes to reduce poverty and to ensure that every pregnancy is wanted, every birth is safe, every young person is free of HIV, and every girl and woman is treated with dignity and respect.

The UN Relief and Works Agency for Palestine Refugees in the Near East (UNRWA) was established by the General Assembly (GA res. 302 (IV)) on 8 December 1949, following the 1948 Arab-Israeli conflict, to carry out direct relief and works programmes for Palestine refugees. The Agency began operations on 1 May 1950.

The UN Research Institute for Social Development (UNRISD) is an autonomous body of the UN that was established in 1963 by a decision of the Secretary-General (ST/SGB/126) with a mandate to conduct policy-relevant research on pressing issues of social development.

Since 1 January 2002 (A/RES/55/278), the UN System Staff College(UNSSC) has operated as a knowledge-management and learning institutions to serve UN organisations without duplicating their learning and training activities.

The UN University (UNU) was established by GA res. 2951 (XXVII)(1972) as an autonomous organ of the General Assembly. The UNU mission is to contribute- through collaborative research research, education and capacity development, and advisory services-to efforts to resolve the pressings global problems of human survival, development and welfare.

The Universal Postal Union (UPU) was established by the Berne Treaty of 1874 and became a specialised agency of the UN in 1948. Article 1 of the Vienna Constitution 1964 states that the aim of the Union is to secure the organisation and improvements of postal services, promote the development of international collaboration and undertake, as far as possible, technical assistance in postal matters requested by members countries. To this end, the countries that have adopted the Constitution comprise a single postal territory.

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