The electoral assistance provided by the UN system can be grouped into three categories: technical assistance; the organization and conduct of elections; and observation or monitoring of elections and participation, where elections are expected to play a significant role in the peacebuilding phase of political negotiations. While technical assistance tends to be provided in politically stable contexts, the organization and conduct of elections takes place almost exclusively in post-conflict conditions. Cases where a major peacekeeping and peace-building mission has included an electoral assistance component have been increasing. Recent examples are Afghanistan, the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Iraq and Sierra Leone. The United Nations Department of Political Affairs (UN-DPA) serves as the first formal contact point for receiving requests for electoral assistance. The Electoral Assistance Division of UN-DPA assists in evaluating these requests, coordinates the provision of electoral assistance by the UN system and ensures a consistent application of standards for the duration of a given project. The Department collaborates with UNDP, whose field presence facilitates timely responses to electoral assistance requests and the mobilization of resources to meet them. Other UN partners include the Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Human Rights (OHCHR), the United Nations Volunteers Programme (UNV), the United Nations Office for Project Services (UNOPS) and the Department of Peacekeeping Operations (UN-DPKO), when peacekeeping missions have an electoral component.